DAVID EVANS ‑ PIONEER

1804 ‑ 1883

 

 

A Term Paper for Graduate Studies in Religious Instruction 543

(Documents of L.D.S. Church History 1850 ‑ 1900)

Professor Gustive O. Larson, Instructor

 

E. Bruce Preece

 

Brigham Young University

 

July 11, 1966

 

Our heartfelt thanks and appreciation to Cousin E. Bruce Preece, a great-great grandson of David Evans, and his wife Barbara Ann for his freely given permission to reprint this paper for distribution to the active members of our Bishop David Evans Family Organization.


 

 Introduction

 

"Happy is he who remembers his progenitors with pride, who relates with pleasure, to the listener, the story of the greatness of their deeds, and silently rejoicing sees himself linked to the end of this goodly chain." CGoethe

It is with these thoughts in mind that I remember my great‑great grandfather, David Evans, and relate to the reader of this paper some of the important deeds and experiences of a man whose name is closely identified with the early history of the church.  As an associate of the Prophet Joseph Smith, military officer, spiritual leader, missionary, town‑planner, territorial legislator, and patriarch to his family, he deserves to be recognized as a pioneer leader by at least those people who see themselves "linked to the end of this goodly chain."

When a son was born to Israel and Abigail Evans, in Cecil County, Maryland, October 27, 1804, they chose for him the Biblical name of David.1 Soon after the birth of their son the Evans family sought new opportunity in Pennsylvania, considered at that time as part of the new nation's frontier.  During his early life in this primitive region, David developed the spiritual and physical ruggedness which prepared him for the trials and challenges that were to follow on other frontiers.

 

Conversion and Missionary Labors

In 1826 David Evans married Mary Beck and the couple purchased a large farm in Richland County, Ohio.  Not far away in another section of the state, the leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints were intensifying proselyting efforts, in order to swell the ranks of the new church organization.  Responding favorably to the message of the gospel, delivered to them by the L.D.S. missionaries, David and Mary were baptized into the church on its third anniversary.  Willingness to give their all for the church was evidenced when just five days after their entrance into the Church, the Evans= sold their farm so that David would have sufficient funds to perform missionary labors.2


This was the beginning of service to the church as a missionary.  David later filled a mission to Iowa in 1841 being called by the Council of the Twelve for that purpose.3 In 1844 he went as a missionary to Virginia.4

As a result of a revelation, the Prophet Joseph Smith organized the School of the Prophets at Kirtland, Ohio, in 1832.  The main objective of the school was to prepare the membership of the church to carry the gospel to the world.  David's effectiveness as a missionary was, no doubt, influenced by his attendance at these class sessions.  When the body of the church later left for Missouri, the leaders of the church placed David in charge of a company of Saints.  Most of these Saints were people that he had converted and baptized

 

The Call to Leadership

In Kirtland, Joseph Smith heard that hundreds of Saints were experiencing great trials as a result of expulsion from their homes in Jackson County, Mo., in 1833‑34.  The Prophet organized a group of some 200 volunteers to march to the aid of these distressed Saints.  This organization came to be known as Zion's Camp.  David Evans volunteered to make the 1,000 mile march with the other members of this armed body.6 Even though Zion's Camp failed in its mission the experiences gained from the march provided the participants with knowledge which proved valuable in the exodus from Nauvoo to the Rocky Mountains.

From among those willing to make the march, the Lord chose His First Quorum of Twelve Apostles and First Council of Seventy.  Joseph Smith and his two counselors, Sidney Rigdon and Oliver Cowdery, set apart David Evans as a member of this First Council of Seventy on Feb, 27, 1835.7

Ten years later, in 1845, when it became apparent that the church would need to move to the West, Brigham Young appointed David as a captain of one of the pioneer companies of Saints.  The training which David Evans received on the Zion's Camp march equipped him well for this particular assignment.8

 

Persecutions in Missouri

Along with other faithful Ohio Saints, David heeded the admonition of the church leaders to move his family to Missouri during the middle 1830's.  Like most of the Saints in this area, the Evans= suffered persecution at the hands of lawless mobs.  Probably the best-known example of brutality and murder in Missouri occurred at Haunts Mill on Tuesday, Oct. 30, 1838. The following is taken from Joseph Young's narrative of the massacre.


It was about 4:00 o'clock, while sitting in my cabin, with my babe in my arms, and my wife standing by my side, the door being open, I cast my eyes on the opposite bank of Shoal Creek and saw a large company of armed men, on horses, directing their course towards the mill with all possible speed.  As they advanced through the scattering trees that stood on the edge of the prairie they seemed to form themselves into a three square position, forming a vanguard in front.

At this moment David Evans, seeing the superiority of their numbers, (there being 240 of them, according to their own account), swung his hat, and cried for peace.  This not being heeded they continued to advance. . .9

During the ensuing scene of bloodshed, eighteen or nineteen lives were snuffed out.  Hiding in the brush, David's wife and family escaped without harm.

On another occasion, David Evans was preaching in the home of a man named Charles Jameson whom he had converted in Ohio several years previous.  At the close of the meeting ten men intruded with the intent of tarring and feathering David.  At this point Charles stepped between his good friend and the mob saying, "The first man that lays a hand on David Evans will have to walk over the body of Charles Jameson." The mob retreated fearfully.10

Throughout the winter of 1838‑39 such lawlessness continued among the scattered settlements of Mormons in Northern Missouri.  Unable to endure terrible treatment further, the Saints again abandoned their homes and property to the mobs and located themselves in the Western part of Illinois.

 

Experiences in Illinois

Leaving behind their home in Missouri, the Evans family settled in Adams County, Illinois, where David actively engaged in missionary work among the local settlers.  However, when death took his wife Mary, David moved to Nauvoo.  On the twenty‑third of November 1841, David married my great‑great grandmother, Barbara Ann Ewell, in Nauvoo.  She was a girl whom he had converted and baptized in Ray County, Missouri, four years previously.11


For the next forty‑two years, Barbara Evans endured the trials and hardships required of the wife of a pioneer leader.  She deserves to be revered as a chosen and faithful daughter of Israel, especially by those who descend from the fifteen children she bore.  At the age of seventy‑five, she offered this fervent testimony, "I feel thankful through all the meandering and shifting scenes of mortal life that I have been preserved thus far in the faith of the gospel, and can testify that Joseph Smith was a prophet of God."12

Several new opportunities and experiences came to David Evans during his five-year residence in Nauvoo.  When Joseph Smith organized the city into ecclesiastical units, David became the bishop of the South side Eleventh Ward.  He received his ordination under the hands of the Prophet on Aug. 20, 1842.  At one time Bishop Evans had to deal with a member of his ward who worked with witches, divining rods and burning boards used for healing the sick.13.  At another time he entertained Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball who visited the ward to solemnize a marriage.14

Those who are acquainted with the Nauvoo period of church history know that many outward as well as underlying problems led to the martyrdom of the Prophet and the expulsion of the Saints from Nauvoo.  However, the Nauvoo Expositor affair brought the trouble to a head.  Shortly after this disturbance, Joseph Smith organized delegates and sent them into the surrounding towns and villages to explain that the situation in Nauvoo was under control and that mob action was uncalled for.   Along with several other brethren, Bishop Evans filled one of these peace making assignments.15  As history records, all efforts to avert trouble failed and the Prophet Joseph Smith fell martyr to the cause of the gospel.

The death of their leader came as a blow to the Saints, but at the same time, most of the church members felt that God had not forsaken them.  Bishop Evans' wife expressed her feelings this way.

I saw Joseph and Hyrum Smith after their martyrdom.  It was a solemn day among the Saints.  We felt like a flock of sheep without a shepherd, but the Lord had another shepherd to lead his Saints.  It was Brigham Young.  I was present the day he was set apart to lead the church.  No Saint could dispute it, for it did seem when he spoke as though it was Joseph's own voice that was addressing us.  I never shall forget that day nor how the Spirit of the Lord was poured out upon the people; it came so mild, yet so penetrating that every heart beat with joy to know we had a man of God to lead the Saints.  Oh, what a consolation it was to know we were not forgotten.16

Along with other officers of the church, David Evans received a sustaining vote from the membership of the church as Bishop of the Eleventh Ward at the October General Conference of the church following the martyrdom of Joseph Smith17

 


Expulsion from Nauvoo,

As it became apparent that their beloved city of Nauvoo would have to be forsaken, the Saints made preparations for the trek west.  Barbara Evans gave this account.

I remained in Illinois until the exodus from that state, which was in 1846.  Some of the Saints had neither teams nor wagons.  The brethren united together and made wagons for those that had none; by that means all had wagons, but not teams, and we were obliged to get away, as the mob was howling around, and Nauvoo was threatened.  So my husband, being bishop of the Eleventh Ward, concluded to take the teams they had and move as many as they could, We made a start with what teams we had, crossed the Mississippi River, went a day's journey, and set the families down on the prairie.  The next day they took the teams and brought the rest,

When the Saints reached Council Bluffs, Iowa, the United States government asked them for soldiers to fight in the war in Mexico.  Anxious to be a member of the Mormon Battalion, the Evans' eighteen year old son, Israel, got into line with the intention of joining up.  The recruiting officer turned him down as being too small.  Unwilling to accept this reason as valid, young Israel made his way to the other end of the line and stood on a tree stump behind a friend.  This time the recruiting officer signed him up as a member of Company B.  Many years later he was asked why he was so eager to enlist.  He answered, "My enlistment saved some man with a family, and if I had stayed my father might have been compelled to go.  That would have been a tragedy.@19

Staying in Missouri from 1847‑50 to prepare for the journey west, David Evans, at the head of fifty‑four wagons, including his own, set out for Salt Lake valley on June 15, 1850 from Kanesville, Iowa.  Three months to the day, the company set foot in the city of Salt Lake.20

The stay in Salt Lake Valley proved to be of short duration for the David Evans family.  In February 1851, Brigham Young called David to take charge of the little colony that had settled at Dry Creek in Utah Valley.  Packing up their belongings in midwinter, the family headed for the area located thirty‑two miles to the south.

 

I, Lehi, Having Been Born of Goodly Pioneers


It would be interesting to know the thoughts of David Evans as the wagon entered the small encampment that cold February day.  Would this settlement be a temporary one like those in Ohio?  Would persecutions come to them as they did in Missouri? Or would they be allowed to build a beautiful city only to abandon it as they did in Nauvoo? Is it possible that David envisioned a permanent and prosperous city, ever growing from the sturdy foundations that he helped to build?

Shortly after the arrival of the Evans family, Apostle George A. Smith visited the little colony and organized Dry Creek Ward of the church.  David Evans was appointed Bishop.  In this capacity he faithfully performed his duties for twenty‑eight years.21

For a while a ward organization sufficed in taking care of civil and ecclesiastical demands.  Later on the citizens felt that a town should be properly organized and named.  Accordingly, early in 1852, David Evans, elected a member of the first territorial legislature for Utah County, presented a petition to the legislature requesting that Dry Creek be incorporated.  With the granting of this petition came also the christening of Lehi, the sixth city in Utah to be incorporated.22

Knowing well that a city must grow out of more than mere legislative action, the Lehi citizens considered their most important needs.  The town desperately required more water.  Dry Creek was just what its name implied.  In February of 1852, Bishop Evans steered a bill through the territorial legislature granting to the people of Lehi one third of the waters of American Fork Creek.23

Under the direction of David Evans, the mammoth task of digging a canal the seven miles from American Fork Creek to Lehi began.  With poor tools, the job of digging in the cobblestone formation was difficult.  Poorly fed and clothed, the workers would have abandoned the project except for the “good humor and tact of their leader”.24  Water began pouring into Lehi before the summer's end, insuring future growth and development of the city.

Not so long out of Nauvoo that they couldn't remember the beautiful physical arrangement and order of that city, the Lehi settlers wanted as much for their own community.  Lack of proper instruments did not prevent them from having their wish granted.  Bishop Evans with the aid of a pocket compass, carpenter's square, and tape line, laid out the city in blocks and lots.25


Passing through Lehi in May of 1854, on a return trip from making a peace treaty with the Ute war chief, Walker, Brigham Young advised the people of Lehi to build a fort.  Following this counsel, Bishop Evans supervised the construction of a fort and stationed guards at all gates for protection against marauding Indians.  This guard lasted for two years.  It must have been effective, since the very night that it stopped an Indian broke into the fort and stole two of the best horses.26

Early in 1853, Lehi made communication with the outside world when the citizens established a post office in the community.  They appointed David Evans as Postmaster with an office conveniently located in one part of his home.27  The town residents rejoiced when, in 1870, Lehi broadened its communication facilities with the initiation of the telegraph.  Until it was discontinued two years later, due to financial troubles, Bishop Evans' residence housed the telegraph.  His daughter Barbara operated the telegraph.  She employed the special training that she had learned in Lehi and in Farmington.28

On March 6, 1854, the second municipal election in Lehi was held, with David Evans winning the Mayor's Post unopposed.  He served two successive later terms in this position.  In addition, David Evans later belonged to the city council and was made judge of elections.

 

Industry and Business Enterprises

Although business and industry played lesser roles in the establishment of communities in the early history of Utah, David Evans became involved with a number of different enterprises.

Soon after arriving in Lehi, David took advice from Brigham Young and engaged in home manufacturing ventures, as evidenced by the following article which appeared in the Deseret News on January 10, 1852.

Capt. David Evans, Representative from Utah County, has made his appearance in the Representatives' Hall, clad in his own family manufactured habiliments, worthy the imitation of a nabob.  We understand his wife cut and made his garments as well as spun and wove the cloth.  Mrs. Evans is worthy to stand by the side of the lady in the buckskin sack, whose name will be forthcoming by and by.  Legislators, what say you for home productions?29

With two partners, David began operating a threshing machine and fanning mill in the summer of 1854.  Although the machines were crude in operation, the settlers appreciated any mechanical help they could get to help harvest their crops.30  Several years later David and Canute Peterson built a small tannery in Lehi.  The townspeople found many uses for the leather produced by the workman, Jonas Holdsworth, who had learned the trade in England.  The tannery operated until 1870.31


The first cooperative store in Utah came about as the result of an idea brought to Lehi from England from Bishop Evans' son, Israel.  Fresh home from a mission, Israel felt that an experiment he had studied while on a mission could be practiced profitably by the people in Lehi.  The project, called Lehi Union Exchange was launched in 1868, with David elected as the first president.  The enterprise met with immediate success and after six months of business, paid a dividend of $28 per share.  The Lehi business later became linked with Zion's Cooperative Mercantile Institution in Salt Lake City.  The latter business was organized in 1869.32

The success of several Cooperatives throughout Utah, spurred Brigham Young to the organization of his long‑dreamed-of United Order.  Under the Order, the whole community would be working and sharing alike.  At a mass meeting held in April 1874, Provo voted to live within the United Order, with A. O. Smoot elected as president.  David Evans served as one of the directors.  The Order failed in all of the more populated centers, but succeeded temporarily in the rural towns of central and Southern Utah.33

 

Military Activities

Very early in the history of Utah, a territorial militia, known as the Nauvoo Legion was organized with military districts in each settlement.  Lehi District comprised all of Utah County north of Provo.  Brigham Young commissioned David Evans a Major with the Legion on March 11, 1852.

In the summer of 1857, President James Buchanan ordered United States troops under the command of Sidney Johnston to Utah to put down an alleged rebellion.  To brace the various settlements against this outside intrusion, General Daniel H. Wells, commander of the militia ordered each district to make ready.  Major Evans assumed command of the Lehi District.  At first the Mormons decided to resist the army at all costs.  This plan however, gave way to one of evacuation of the people North of Provo to southern areas.  Lehi played a major role in assisting thousands of refugees along the way.34 

Fortunately, open warfare between the Saints and the army did not result due to negotiations between opposing factions.  During the summer of 1858, the dislocated Saints returned to their homes.  The army, stationed just eighteen miles from Lehi at Camp Floyd, seemed at first to pose a threat to the settlers.  However, the military installation proved to be an economic blessing in disguise to Lehi since it furnished Lehi with many badly‑needed articles in exchange for farm produce.  This trade continued until the abandonment of the camp in 1861, at the time of the outbreak of the Civil War.  Lehi obtained a large share of the materials and equipment from the camp which went for sale at this time.  In company with George A. Smith, David Evans visited the camp in 1861, for the purpose of purchasing supplies.35

 

Explorations

Various duties and responsibilities kept David Evans tied pretty close to his beloved Lehi most of the time.  However, occasionally, at the request of Brigham Young, David headed exploration parties throughout the territory of Utah.

One such venture took place in 1853 when Brigham Young sent David to the Southwest in search of a fertile country which Brigham felt would support 500,000 people.  David failed to find the region described.  Brigham Young felt that David had not penetrated far enough into the interior, and in March 1858, he sent other parties to make more extensive explorations.  These parties found no such place for habitation for a multitude of people as President Young had hoped for, but confirmed the correctness of Bishop Evans= previous report.36

On May 22, 1855, under the authority of the First Presidency of the Church, David Evans led an exploration party to White Mountain (Nevada) to find a suitable settling place for the Saints and to open up a mission to the Indians.  James Harwood, a member of the party, recorded the following.

A tribe of Indians camped with us, made themselves quite at home, and enjoyed our rations exceedingly.  After a few days, the Bishop took a small party of men and explored the White Mountain country.  After being at the spring about a month, we received orders from Church headquarters to abandon the idea of making a settlement and to return home.  The Indians were quite disappointed at our departure.37

Following orders, the party returned to Lehi on July 17, 1855.

In April of 1857, President Brigham Young and a caravan of 142 people, including David Evans and Ann, one of his plural wives, explored the country to the North.  The company reached the Mormon settlement and Indian mission at Fort Lemhi, Idaho, on the Salmon River on May 8. The group returned to Utah again on May 26.  Due to Indian hostilities this Indian mission was closed in the spring of 1858.38

 


Family Life

Entering the patriarchal order of marriage, David Evans married seven wives and fathered forty‑one children.  Even though many responsibilities made demands on the time and energies of Bishop Evans, still he found time for his family.  As a member of the legislature, he wrote this letter to his wife Barbara.

Great Salt Lake City

December 30, 1856

Dear Companion:

I take this opportunity of writing to you to let you know that I am well, and enjoying myself every day as either Brother Brigham or Brother Heber and the twelve are with us almost every day‑‑preach to us the principles of the Reformation and the unsearchable riches of Jesus, and the mysteries of the Kingdom.

We feast here every day, and the fire of God is burning in our hearts, and we have good times here in the midst of blessings.  I think of my family, and pray for you daily, that the Reformation may sink deep into each of your hearts, and the Lord bless you all with understanding hearts that you may understand some of the things that are coming upon the earth, and also upon the Saints if they repent not.

When I come home, I shall endeavor to proceed further in setting my family in order that the fire of the Lord may be kindled in every heart in my house and round about it, and that our habitation may be a habitation of health and peace, and wickedness and evil spirits have no place with us, and not only with us but in our City, that our City even the City of Lehi may be cleansed with the spirit of judgment and burning, and every soul therein that will not worship the Lord, our God, shall die.

Dear wives and children, remember this, the admonition of your husband and father and act accordingly, and the Lord will bless you.  Read this to Brother Able and Brother Thomas, and all my family, and all who may wish to hear from me, for the day to trifle with this people is gone by, and they must repent or be damned.

Come down in about two weeks from New Year's Day, and stay until I return.

I remain as ever your husband in the bonds of the new and everlasting covenant.

(Signed) David Evans39


Though the message of this letter is somewhat stern, it manifests the spirit of a man's concern for the spiritual welfare of his family during the Reformation period in Utah.

The following account from a member of Johnston's army, Lt. Jesse A. Gove, who visited the Evans family in June of 1858, gives us a glimpse into the Bishop's home life.

Bishop Evans was our host.  He is the highest church dignitary in the place and keeps a sort of hotel.  The bishop is a corpulent and quite sociable old man.  A multitude of children were running about the house.  They were very well behaved, made no noise, kept out of the way, and bore a very retiring disposition.  They took care of each other, the elder ones acting as matrons to their younger relatives...40

It seems that Bishop Evans' well‑ordered home made an impression on the lieutenant.

Mrs. C. E. Peterson tells the story of how one of David Evans' sons learned a valuable lesson from his father.  Mrs., Peterson, the granddaughter of David Evans, says that her grandfather had assigned some work for his sons Edwin and Azer to do.  Edwin worked longer than Azer and expected more pay for his work.  When it came time to settle up, Grandfather Evans gave the two boys equal amounts of money.  Edwin expressed anger at his brother.  Grandfather Evans then, without speaking a word, took Edwin's money and gave it to his brother Azer.  Edwin received a valuable lesson that lasted throughout his life.  He says, "Never act in anger or in haste." Remembering this incident, Edwin grew up to be one of Utah=s finest artists and art teachers.41

 

Death and Funeral

Following a long and eventful life, David Evans passed away on June 23, 1883 as he neared his eightieth birthday.  From near and far came people to pay their respects to the pioneer colonizer.  Family and friends alike mourned their loss.  President Woodruff and other church officials accompanied a special mourning train from Salt Lake City to attend and speak at the funeral.  The funeral procession consisted of 115 vehicles, the largest line ever formed in Lehi.42

"Only in a thoughtless temper would an intelligent man declare that it mattered nothing to him who were his ancestors, nor what his relationship might be to those coming after him." ‑‑Henry Kendall


Footnotes

 

 1. Hamilton Gardner, History of Lehi, (Salt Lake City, Utah; Deseret Book Co., 1913), 367.

 2. Ibid.

 3. Joseph Smith, History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints, B. H. Roberts, ed. (2nd ed. rev., Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1959‑60), IV, 429, hereafter cited as D.H.C.

 4. Ibid, VI, 335.

 5. Gardner, Op. cit., 367.

 6. D.H.C., Op. cit., II, 183.

 7. D.H.C., Op. cit., II, 203.

 8. D.H.C., Op. cit., VII, 482.

 9. D.H.C., Op. cit., III, 186.

10. Kate B. Carter, Treasures of Pioneer History, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah Printing Co., 1955), IV, 526.

11. Gardner, Op. cit., 368.

12. Ibid., 371.

13. D.H.C., Op. cit., V, 311‑312.

14. D.H.C., Op. cit., VII, 347.

15. D.H.C., Op. cit., VI, 483.

16. Gardner, Op. cit., 368.

17. D.H.C., Op. cit., VII, 298.

18. Gardner, Op. cit., 369.

19. Carter, Op. cit., IV, 459,

20. Kate B. Carter, Heartthrobs of the West, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah Printing Co., 1934), IV, 339.

21. Gardner, Op. cit., 30‑33.

22. Emma B. Huff, Memories That Live, (Springville, Utah: Art City Publishing Co., 1947), 238.

23. Ibid., 239.

24. Carter, Heartthrobs, Op. cit., IX, 195, 196.

25. Ibid., 24.0.

26. Centennial Committee, Lehi Centennial History (Lehi, Utah: Free Press Publishing Co., 1950), 53‑54.

27. Ibid., 39.

28. Gardner, Op. Cit., 125.

29. Carter, Heartthrobs, III, 202.

30. Huff, Op. cit., 234.


31. Centennial Committee, Op. cit., 105.

32. Huff, Op. cit., 234.

33. Workers of the W.P.A., Provo, Pioneer Mormon City, (Portland, Oregon:  Binford and Mort, 1942), 117‑118.

34. Gardner, Op. cit., 133.

35. W.P.A., Op. cit., 174.

36. B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints, (6 vols. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 1930), IV.

37. Centennial Committee, Op. cit., 77.

38. Ibid., 81.

39. Copy of a personal letter of David Evans.

40. Jesse A. Gove, The Utah Expedition, 1857‑1858, (Concord, N. H.: N. H. Historical Society; 1928), 359.

41. Personal Interview with Mrs. C. E. Peterson in Salt Lake City, Utah, June 29, 1966.

42. Gardner, Op. cit., 368.


Bibliography

 

Carter, Kate B. Heartthrobs of the West. Vol. III, VII, IX. Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah Printing Co., 1934.

Carter, Kate B. Our Pioneer Heritage. Vol. IV. Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah Printing Co., 1964.

Carter, Kate B. Treasures of Pioneer History. Vol. IV. Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah Printing Co., 1955.

Centennial Committee. Lehi Centennial History 1850‑1950. Lehi, Utah: Free Press Publishing Co., 1950.

Gardner, Hamilton. History of Lehi. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 1913.

Gove, Jesse A. The Utah Expedition, 1857‑1858. Concord, N. H.: N. H. Historical Society, 1928.

Huff, Emma N. Memories That Live. Springville, Utah: Art City Publishing co., 1947.

Roberts, B. H. A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints. Vol. IV, Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 1930.

Smith, Joseph. History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints. 7 Vols. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Co., 1959, 1960.

W.P.A. Programs, Provo, Pioneer Mormon City. Portland, Oregon: Binfords and Mort, 1942.